Structure of the eyes

Understanding the nature of changes in the different parts of the eyes and anterior visual pathways is essential in the functional assessment. If the description of the structural changes is not clear enough, the parents or the doctor can be asked for more information. Such anatomic deviations as colobomas, lens luxations and cloudiness of the optic media can be documented with drawings. If the teacher has the opportunity to see the optic media by looking at the red reflex during the clinical examination (I highly recommend the presence of the teacher during the examination), it helps to understand photophobia, to evaluate the use of filter lenses and visors and to plan the child's placement in the class room.

If an examination of the child by an eye doctor is not possible, the teacher should be able to make a preliminary diagnosis of any abnormalities of the front of the eye. The common lesions of the cornea and eye lids are well described in several books on eye diseases, as well as are cataract, aphakia and glaucoma, so they are not discussed here. There are several books on the anatomy of the eyes and visual pathways. My little book "Eyes and Vision" is included in this material.

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